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Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Review

The use of botulinum toxin in head and face medicine: An interdisciplinary field

Rainer Laskawi

Author Affiliations

Universitäts-HNO-Klinik, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany

Head & Face Medicine 2008, 4:5  doi:10.1186/1746-160X-4-5

Published: 10 March 2008



In this review article different interdisciplinary relevant applications of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in the head and face region are demonstrated.

Patients with head and face disorders of different etiology often suffer from disorders concerning their musculature (example: synkinesis in mimic muscles) or gland-secretion.

This leads to many problems and reduces their quality of life. The application of BTA can improve movement disorders like blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, synkinesis following defective healing of the facial nerve, palatal tremor, severe bruxism, oromandibular dystonias hypertrophy of the masseter muscle and disorders of the autonomous nerve system like hypersalivation, hyperlacrimation, pathological sweating and intrinsic rhinitis.


The application of botulinum toxin type A is a helpful and minimally invasive treatment option to improve the quality of life in patients with head and face disorders of different quality and etiology. Side effects are rare.