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Open Access Research

Effects of hypodontia on craniofacial structures and mandibular growth pattern

Amelia Kreczi, Peter Proff, Claudia Reicheneder and Andreas Faltermeier*

Author Affiliations

Department of Orthodontics, University Clinics, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany

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Head & Face Medicine 2011, 7:23  doi:10.1186/1746-160X-7-23

Published: 6 December 2011

Abstract

Introduction

This study was performed to examine craniofacial structures in persons with hypodontia and to reveal any differences, that may occur, when agenetic teeth are only found in the maxilla, the mandible or in both jaws. The groups consistent of 50 children (33 girls, 17 boys) aged between 9 and 13.5 years were analyzed and assigned to three subgroups. Group 1 = upper jaw hypodontia. Group 2 = lower jaw hypodontia. Group 3 = hypodontia in both jaws.

Materials and methods

Eleven angular and three index measurements from lateral encephalographs and two linear measurements from dental blaster casts were calculated. All data was statistically analyzed, parameters with p < 5% were investigated for each subgroup respectively.

Results

In comparison with standards the study group showed bimaxillary retrognathism and a reduction of the lower anterior facial height. Moreover both overbite and overjet significantly increased. Other values laid within the normal ranges. Evaluating results of the subgroups, differences in the means of SNA, SNB and overjet between the groups were observed.

Analysis of the mandibular growth pattern revealed, that neither vertical nor horizontal patterns are dominant in hypodontia patients.

Conclusions

In certain dentofacial parameters differences between persons with hypodontia and such with full dentition exist. According to our findings agenetic teeth may have a negative influence on the saggital development of a jaw and the lower face and may be responsible for increased overbites. This should receive attention in orthodontic treatment of hypodontia patients.

Keywords:
hypodontia; mandibular growth; missing teeth